Gunathilake K.A.M.P., Kumarapeli V., Kaluarachchi A., Hunukumbure R.M.C.B.
Oghenero G. Siloko, Mohammed A. Mojeed and Ridwan O. Alabi
The hydrochemical properties and groundwater quality assessment of groundwater samples from Kurudu area of Abuja, north central Nigeria, was investigated with the aim to evaluating their suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, and electrical conductivity were analysed. The major cations and anions were also analysed. Hydrochemical facies of the water samples were analysed employing Piper diagram and Gibbs diagram while the suitability of the water for irrigation purposes was assessed using indices such as Kelly’s ratio, Sodium percentage ratio, Magnesium hazard, Permeability Index and Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR). The physicochemical parameters of the water samples are within the acceptable limit recommended by WHO (2011). Physiochemical results showed that the dominant cation occur in the order of Ca2+> Na+> K+> Mg2+ with average values of 19.9mg/l, 16.15mg/l, 7.01mg/l and 4.38mg/l respectively, while the dominant anion ranged in the order of HCO3-> Cl-> SO42-> NO3-with average values of 56.93mg/l, 35.5 mg/l, 8.38mg/l and 3.85mg/l respectively. The dominant hydrochemical facies identified in the samples is the mixed Ca-Mg-Cl which is a result of linear mixing processes of water in the study area. Gibbs plot indicated that ions concentration in the water is primarily contributed by chemical weathering of the rock-forming minerals. Irrigation indices all suggested that the water samples are good for irrigation purposes. Results from the study indicate that, with a few exceptions, water in the study area is suitable for human consumption and irrigation purposes.
Asenath Ndegwa, Dr. Jane Wanjira
Small businesses including those in the renewable energy sector face many challenges putting their survival at risk. In Kenya, 3 out of 5 SMEs close within the first two years after starting operations, and to enhance their survival many small businesses have turned to incubation. Thus, the purpose of the study was to establish the effect of marketing support from incubation centers on the survival of SMEs in the renewable sector in Kenya. The study is anchored on the market orientation theory and employed descriptive research design. The 60 renewable energy SMEs from the database of the World Bank InfoDev initiative were targeted. A census study of the 60 SMEs in this database was carried out. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires that were self-administered to the SME owner and senior managers. The collected data was qualitative and quantitative in nature and it was analyzed through descriptive correlation, multiple regression and content analysis. The findings revealed that respondents agreed that marketing support influenced survival of the SMEs due to overall mean score of M = 3.88. The correlation analysis showed that marketing support and survival of SMEs in the renewable energy had positive and significant association (r = 0.569, p = 0.000 <0.05). The regression coefficient showed a positive and noteworthy association between marketing support and survival of SMEs in the renewable energy based on beta findings of (β =2.991, p < 0.05). Results also showed that 59.9% of changes in the survival of the SMEs in the renewable energy sector in Kenya could be traced to marketing support. Thus, the study concluded that survival of SMEs in the renewable energy in Kenya largely depends on accessing and participation in business incubation programs for marketing support. The study also concludes that marketing support contributes to business survival.
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